In the 1980s and 1990s, a large part of the world community became the subject of significant political changes and cultural processes caused by these changes. The collapse of the Soviet Union, the fall of the Berlin Wall, once monolithic and currently divided territories of Eastern and Central Europe, modifications in the Asian region were the signs of cardinal changes.
The political and economic crisis that was established in the great part of the world – the former Soviet Union and the Socialist countries territories, as well as other hot spots, intensify the sense of an inevitable catastrophe. The policy of the “Soviet integrity” moves into the ruins of the Empire and is substituted by no less dangerous open ethnic confrontations, including the Caucasian region. It will give rise to mutual confrontations, war, pain and heavy loses.
The drama of the general situation facilitates in the West accumulation of material and cultural wealth of a new type. From the viewpoint of literary processes, intertextuality becomes predominant, which implies inner relations of the text, not directed outside towards the reality of life, but towards the national and international cultural area. The Western canon establishes a new order, whereas the process becomes especially comprehensive in the conditions of open boundaries and gradually moves to the world scale. In the world literary area intertextuality and concepts related to it are introduced, such as: text, context, subtext, meta-text, etc. Literary products become far more eclectic, resembling a collage, based on associations and allusions. The fall of the political authorities is followed by the total devaluation of authorities, the method of irony and self-irony is used increasingly, high ideals are replaced by pseudo-ideals; deconstruction of the intellectual world begins. Hence, Post-modernism, which in the 1970s-1980s is a marker of only the Euro-American culture, now with “all its grandeur” becomes established in the world art and literature, fitting precisely the psychology of the society in a crisis. New literary consciousness becomes the source of search and discovering of new national and cultural identities. It appears as an excellent means not only for reconstruction of the cultural consciousness being in a phase of crisis, but also for overcoming the Soviet canon.
Director of Shota Rustaveli Institute of Georgian Literature
Head of the TSU Department of General and Comparative Literary Studies